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Christopher Crank
Christopher Crank


When the principal of a charter school in Florida was recently forced to resign after parents alleged that their children had been exposed to pornography when shown photos of the Renaissance master Michelangelo's sculpture of the biblical figure David, many around the world were surprised. That itself is surprising. Almost since the moment that the 17ft (5m)-high nude marble statue was chiselled into scandalous shape in around 1504, Michelangelo's masterpiece has stood its ground against perennial accusations of indecency. The sculpture hadn't even strutted its way through the 16th Century before being fitted with a ludicrous loincloth of metal fig leaves to mitigate its immodesty. It was only in the middle of the 20th Century that similar leaves were finally plucked from the groin of a cast replica of the famous statue on display at the Victoria & Albert Museum in London, which had been given to Queen Victoria in 1857.



L.A.P.D. chief Bernard Parks formed a Board of Inquiry comprised ofL.A.P.D. command staff to analyze management failures and investigate the depthof the corruption scandal. The Board's report, released in March 2000,blames, in large measure, lax departmental management for allowing misconductwithin the Rampart Division to occur. The report offers 108 recommendations,including the improvement of hiring practices, supervisory oversight and policetraining. March 3, 2000 -- CRASH Disbanded

Professor Erwin Chemerinsky of the University of Southern California, releasedan analysis of the L.A.P.D.'s Board of Inquiry report which he preparedat the request of the Police Protective League. He concluded that the L.A.P.D.minimized the magnitude of the Rampart scandal and failed to acknowledge theextent to which its internal culture allowed corruption to fester.Chemerinsky's report recommends more aggressive independent reviews and apermanent special prosecutor to investigate police misconduct.September 19, 2000 -- Feds Take Over L.A.P.D.

In the largest police misconduct settlement in city history, Javier Ovando wasawarded $15 million. An additional 29 civil suits were settled for nearly $11million. The city, faced with more than 140 civil suits stemming from thecorruption scandal, estimates that total settlement costs will be about $125million.

Regulators in the United States, the UK, and the European Union have fined banks more than $9 billion for rigging Libor, which underpins over $300 trillion worth of loans worldwide. Since 2015, authorities in both the UK and the United States have brought criminal charges against individual traders and brokers for their role in manipulating rates, though the success of these prosecutions has been mixed. The scandal has sparked calls for deeper reform of the entire Libor rate-setting system, as well as harsher penalties for offending individuals and institutions, but so far change remains piecemeal.

Despite the scandal, Libor continues its role as the primary benchmark for global lending rates. However, the efforts of authorities to increase the oversight and accountability of the Libor system have spurred debate over whether reforms go far enough.

Andy Miller: A prominent former NBA agent and the founder of ASM Sports. He represented the likes of Kevin Garnett, Kristaps Porzingis and Kyle Lowry but relinquished his certification in December amid unfolding allegations that his agency was heavily involved in the college basketball scandal. Miller's computer was seized last year in an FBI raid. Teaming with Dawkins, Miller issued four- and five-figure payments to several high school and college players, according to Yahoo! Sports.

Christian Dawkins: The sports agent, former youth tournament director and AAU figure who is alleged to have been instrumental in conspiring with others implicated in the scandal to arrange payments to each of the four assistant coaches arrested in September. Before opening his own agency, Dawkins, 25, worked for Miller's ASM Sports.

Jonathan Brad Augustine: Former AAU director and youth coach implicated in September as a co-conspirator in the scandal. Federal prosecutors asked a judge in early February to drop charges against Augustine.

Oct. 16: Pitino was fired by Louisville, completing the Hall of Fame coach's separation from the school after he was placed on administrative leave on Sept. 27 -- one day after the unveiling of the scandal by federal officials. Louisville was fingered by the feds for directing money from Adidas to two high school prospects, including Bowen.

scandal (third-person singular simple present scandals, present participle scandalling or scandaling, simple past and past participle scandalled or scandaled)

Objection 1. It would seem that scandal is unfittingly defined as "something less rightly said or done that occasions spiritual downfall." For scandal is a sin as we shall state further on (Article 2). Now, according to Augustine (Contra Faust. xxii, 27), a sin is a "word, deed, or desire contrary to the law of God." Therefore the definition given above is insufficient, since it omits "thought" or "desire."

Objection 2. Further, since among virtuous or right acts one is more virtuous or more right than another, that one alone which has perfect rectitude would not seem to be a "less" right one. If, therefore, scandal is something "less" rightly said or done, it follows that every virtuous act except the best of all, is a scandal.

Objection 3. Further, an occasion is an accidental cause. But nothing accidental should enter a definition, because it does not specify the thing defined. Therefore it is unfitting, in defining scandal, to say that it is an "occasion."

Objection 4. Further, whatever a man does may be the occasion of another's spiritual downfall, because accidental causes are indeterminate. Consequently, if scandal is something that occasions another's spiritual downfall, any deed or word can be a scandal: and this seems unreasonable.

Objection 5. Further, a man occasions his neighbor's spiritual downfall when he offends or weakens him. Now scandal is condivided with offense and weakness, for the Apostle says (Romans 14:21): "It is good not to eat flesh, and not to drink wine, nor anything whereby thy brother is offended or scandalized, or weakened." Therefore the aforesaid definition of scandal is unfitting.

On the contrary, Jerome in expounding Matthew 15:12, "Dost thou know that the Pharisees, when they heard this word," etc. says: "When we read 'Whosoever shall scandalize,' the sense is 'Whosoever shall, by deed or word, occasion another's spiritual downfall.'"

In like manner, while going along the spiritual way, a man may be disposed to a spiritual downfall by another's word or deed, in so far, to wit, as one man by his injunction, inducement or example, moves another to sin; and this is scandal properly so called.

Reply to Objection 1. The thought or desire of evil lies hidden in the heart, wherefore it does not suggest itself to another man as an obstacle conducing to his spiritual downfall: hence it cannot come under the head of scandal.

Reply to Objection 3. As stated above (I-II:75:2; I-II:75:3; I-II:80:1), nothing can be a sufficient cause of a man's spiritual downfall, which is sin, save his own will. Wherefore another man's words or deeds can only be an imperfect cause, conducing somewhat to that downfall. For this reason scandal is said to afford not a cause, but an occasion, which is an imperfect, and not always an accidental cause. Nor is there any reason why certain definitions should not make mention of things that are accidental, since what is accidental to one, may be proper to something else: thus the accidental cause is mentioned in the definition of chance (Phys. ii, 5).

Reply to Objection 4. Another's words or deed may be the cause of another's sin in two ways, directly and accidentally. Directly, when a man either intends, by his evil word or deed, to lead another man into sin, or, if he does not so intend, when his deed is of such a nature as to lead another into sin: for instance, when a man publicly commits a sin or does something that has an appearance of sin. On this case he that does such an act does, properly speaking, afford an occasion of another's spiritual downfall, wherefore his act is called "active scandal." One man's word or deed is the accidental cause of another's sin, when he neither intends to lead him into sin, nor does what is of a nature to lead him into sin, and yet this other one, through being ill-disposed, is led into sin, for instance, into envy of another's good, and then he who does this righteous act, does not, so far as he is concerned, afford an occasion of the other's downfall, but it is this other one who takes the occasion according to Romans 7:8: "Sin taking occasion by the commandment wrought in me all manner of concupiscence." Wherefore this is "passive," without "active scandal," since he that acts rightly does not, for his own part, afford the occasion of the other's downfall. Sometimes therefore it happens that there is active scandal in the one together with passive scandal in the other, as when one commits a sin being induced thereto by another; sometimes there is active without passive scandal, for instance when one, by word or deed, provokes another to sin, and the latter does not consent; and sometimes there is passive without active scandal, as we have already said.

Reply to Objection 5. "Weakness" denotes proneness to scandal; while "offense" signifies resentment against the person who commits a sin, which resentment may be sometimes without spiritual downfall; and "scandal" is the stumbling that results in downfall.

Objection 1. It would seem that scandal is not a sin. For sins do not occur from necessity, since all sin is voluntary, as stated above (I-II:74:1 and I-II:74:2). Now it is written (Matthew 18:7): "It must needs be that scandals come." Therefore scandal is not a sin. 041b061a72


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