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Metalloid: Freshman - The Movie That Will Make You Laugh and Think



The Metalloid: Freshman




Are you a freshman in chemistry and want to learn more about the mysterious elements called metalloids? If so, you are in the right place. In this article, you will discover what metalloids are, why they are important, how to identify them in the periodic table, and what are their properties and uses. By the end of this article, you will have a better understanding of these fascinating elements and how they can help you in your studies and beyond.




The Metalloid: Freshman


Download: https://www.google.com/url?q=https%3A%2F%2Furluso.com%2F2ud98k&sa=D&sntz=1&usg=AOvVaw370yKTyYvOufRniJYWcC1j



Introduction




What is a metalloid?




A metalloid is a type of chemical element that has a mixture of properties of metals and nonmetals. For example, some metalloids can conduct electricity under certain conditions, but not as well as metals. Some metalloids have a shiny appearance like metals, but are brittle like nonmetals. Some metalloids can form alloys with metals, but also bond with nonmetals. Metalloids are also known as semimetals or semiconductors.


Why are metalloids important?




Metalloids are important because they have unique characteristics that make them useful for many applications in science, technology, medicine, industry and everyday life. For instance, metalloids such as silicon and germanium are essential for making transistors, microchips, solar cells and other electronic devices. Metalloids such as arsenic and antimony are used as pesticides, medicines and fire retardants. Metalloids such as boron and tellurium are used as additives to improve the strength and hardness of metals and alloys.


How to identify metalloids in the periodic table?




The periodic table is a way of organizing the chemical elements based on their atomic number, chemical properties and physical properties. The periodic table has 18 groups (columns) and 7 periods (rows). The elements in each group have similar chemical properties, while the elements in each period have similar physical properties.


The easiest way to identify metalloids in the periodic table is to look for the staircase-shaped line that separates metals from nonmetals. The line starts from boron (group 13) and ends at astatine (group 17). The elements that touch this line are usually considered as metalloids. However, there is no clear-cut definition of a metalloid and some elements may be classified differently by different sources. Therefore, it is important to check the specific properties of each element before deciding whether it is a metalloid or not.


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The six common metalloids




The six elements that are most commonly recognized as metalloids are boron, silicon, germanium, arsenic, antimony and tellurium. They have an atomic number between 5 and 52 and belong to groups 13 to 16 of the periodic table. Here is a brief overview of their properties and uses:


Boron




Boron is a metalloid with the symbol B and the atomic number 5. It has a low melting point of 2076C and a high boiling point of 3927C. It is hard, brittle and black in its pure form, but can form various colorful compounds. Boron has an electronegativity of 2.04, which means it can form both covalent and ionic bonds. Boron has three valence electrons, which means it can form three bonds with other atoms.


Boron is used for making borosilicate glass, which is resistant to thermal shock and chemical corrosion. Boron is also used for making boron carbide, which is one of the hardest materials known and used for making bulletproof vests, tank armor and cutting tools. Boron is also used for making boron nitride, which is a lubricant and a semiconductor. Boron is also used as a dopant to enhance the conductivity of silicon and germanium.


Silicon




Silicon is a metalloid with the symbol Si and the atomic number 14. It has a melting point of 1414C and a boiling point of 3265C. It is hard, brittle and gray in its pure form, but can form various colorful compounds. Silicon has an electronegativity of 1.90, which means it can form both covalent and ionic bonds. Silicon has four valence electrons, which means it can form four bonds with other atoms.


Silicon is the second most abundant element in the Earth's crust after oxygen and the main component of sand, quartz and granite. Silicon is used for making silicon dioxide, which is a transparent and inert material used for making glass, lenses, windows and optical fibers. Silicon is also used for making silicon carbide, which is a very hard and abrasive material used for making cutting tools, grinding wheels and car brakes. Silicon is also used for making silicon chips, which are the basis of modern electronics and computers.


Germanium




Germanium is a metalloid with the symbol Ge and the atomic number 32. It has a melting point of 938C and a boiling point of 2833C. It is hard, brittle and grayish-white in its pure form, but can form various colorful compounds. Germanium has an electronegativity of 2.01, which means it can form both covalent and ionic bonds. Germanium has four valence electrons, which means it can form four bonds with other atoms.


Germanium is a rare element that is mainly obtained from zinc ores and coal ash. Germanium is used for making germanium dioxide, which is a transparent material that can transmit infrared light and used for making lenses, windows and optical fibers for thermal imaging and night vision devices. Germanium is also used for making germanium transistors, which are faster and more reliable than silicon transistors and used for high-frequency applications such as radar, satellite communication and mobile phones. Germanium is also used as a dopant to enhance the conductivity of silicon.


Arsenic




Arsenic is a metalloid with the symbol As and the atomic number 33. It has a melting point of 817C (sublimation) and a boiling point of 614C (sublimation). It is soft, brittle and gray in its pure form, but can form various colorful compounds. Arsenic has an electronegativity of 2.18, which means it can form both covalent and ionic bonds. Arsenic has five valence electrons, which means it can form three or five bonds with other atoms.


Arsenic is a toxic element that occurs naturally in some minerals and groundwater. Arsenic poisoning can cause various symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, skin lesions, hair loss, nerve damage and cancer. Arsenic is used for making arsenic trioxide, which is a white powder that can kill insects, rodents and fungi and used as a pesticide, herbicide and wood preservative. Arsenic is also used for making gallium arsenide, which is a semiconductor that can emit light and used for making lasers, LEDs and solar cells.


Antimony




```html means it can form three or five bonds with other atoms.


Antimony is a rare element that is mainly obtained from stibnite and other sulfide ores. Antimony is used for making antimony trioxide, which is a white powder that can enhance the flame retardancy of plastics, textiles and rubber. Antimony is also used for making antimony alloys, such as pewter and type metal, which are used for making utensils, ornaments and printing materials. Antimony is also used as a dopant to enhance the conductivity of silicon and germanium.


Tellurium




Tellurium is a metalloid with the symbol Te and the atomic number 52. It has a melting point of 449C and a boiling point of 988C. It is soft, brittle and silvery-white in its pure form, but can form various colorful compounds. Tellurium has an electronegativity of 2.1, which means it can form both covalent and ionic bonds. Tellurium has six valence electrons, which means it can form two or four bonds with other atoms.


Tellurium is a rare element that is mainly obtained from copper and gold ores. Tellurium is used for making tellurium dioxide, which is a transparent material that can change its optical properties under electric fields and used for making optical modulators and memory devices. Tellurium is also used for making cadmium telluride and mercury cadmium telluride, which are semiconductors that can detect infrared light and used for making photovoltaic cells and infrared cameras. Tellurium is also used as an additive to improve the machinability of metals and alloys.


The five less common metalloids




The five elements that are less commonly recognized as metalloids are carbon, aluminium, selenium, polonium and astatine. They have an atomic number between 6 and 85 and belong to groups 14 to 17 of the periodic table. Here is a brief overview of their properties and uses:


Carbon




Carbon is a metalloid with the symbol C and the atomic number 6. It has a melting point of 3550C (sublimation) and a boiling point of 4827C (sublimation). It is soft, brittle and black in its pure form, but can form various colorful compounds. Carbon has an electronegativity of 2.55, which means it can form both covalent and ionic bonds. Carbon has four valence electrons, which means it can form four bonds with other atoms.


Carbon is the fourth most abundant element in the universe and the basis of all organic life on Earth. Carbon can exist in different forms called allotropes, such as diamond, graphite, graphene, fullerene and carbon nanotube. Each allotrope has different physical and chemical properties. Carbon is used for making carbon dioxide, which is a greenhouse gas that regulates the Earth's temperature and supports photosynthesis. Carbon is also used for making carbon fibers, which are strong and lightweight materials used for making sports equipment, aerospace components and medical devices.


Aluminium




Aluminium is a metalloid with the symbol Al and the atomic number 13. It has a melting point of 660C and a boiling point of 2519C. It is soft, ductile and silvery-white in its pure form, but can form various colorful compounds. Aluminium has an electronegativity of 1.61, which means it can form both covalent and ionic bonds. Aluminium has three valence electrons, which means it can form three bonds with other atoms.


Aluminium is the third most abundant element in the Earth's crust after oxygen and silicon and the most abundant metal in the Earth's crust. Aluminium is used for making aluminium oxide, which is a hard and transparent material used for making abrasives, ceramics and refractories. Aluminium is also used for making aluminium alloys, such as duralumin and magnalium, which are light and strong materials used for making aircrafts, cars and bicycles. Aluminium is also used for making aluminium foil, which is a thin and flexible material used for packaging food and medicine.


Selenium




Selenium is a metalloid with the symbol Se and the atomic number 34. It has a melting point of 221C (sublimation) and a boiling point of 685C (sublimation). It is soft, brittle and gray in its pure form, but can form various colorful compounds. Selenium has an electronegativity of 2.55, which means it can form both covalent and ionic bonds. Selenium has six valence electrons, which means it can form two or four bonds with other atoms.


Selenium is a rare element that is mainly obtained from copper and nickel ores. Selenium is used for making selenium dioxide, which is a red powder that can oxidize organic compounds and used as a reagent in organic synthesis. Selenium is also used for making selenium sulfide, which is a yellow powder that can kill fungi and used as an anti-dandruff shampoo. Selenium is also used for making cadmium selenide and zinc selenide, which are semiconductors that can emit light and used for making LEDs and lasers.


Polonium




Polonium is a metalloid with the symbol Po and the atomic number 84. It has a melting point of 254C and a boiling point of 962C. It is soft, ductile and silvery-gray in its pure form, but can form various colorful compounds. Polonium has an electronegativity of 2.0, which means it can form both covalent and ionic bonds. Polonium has six valence electrons, which means it can form two or four bonds with other atoms.


Polonium is a radioactive element that is mainly obtained from uranium ores. Polonium has 33 isotopes, all of which are unstable and decay into other elements. The most common isotope is polonium-210, which has a half-life of 138 days and emits alpha particles. Polonium is used for making polonium-beryllium, which is a neutron source that can initiate nuclear fission and used for making nuclear weapons. Polonium is also used for making polonium-lead, which is a thermoelectric generator that can convert heat into electricity and used for powering satellites and spacecrafts.


Astatine




Astatine is a metalloid with the symbol At and the atomic number 85. It has a melting point of 302C (sublimation) and a boiling point of 337C (sublimation). It is soft, ductile and black in its pure form, but can form various colorful compounds. Astatine has an electronegativity of 2.2, which means it can form both covalent and ionic bonds. Astatine has seven valence electrons, which means it can form one or five bonds with other atoms.


Astatine is the rarest naturally occurring element on Earth and the heaviest halogen. Astatine has 39 isotopes, all of which are unstable and decay into other elements. The most common isotope is astatine-210, which has a half-life of 8.1 hours and emits alpha particles. Astatine is used for making astatine-211, which is a radioactive tracer that can target cancer cells and used for radiotherapy. Astatine is also used for making synthetic elements, such as francium and ununennium.


Conclusion




Summary of main points




In this article, you have learned about the metalloids, which are elements that have a mixture of properties of metals and nonmetals. You have learned how to identify metalloids in the periodic table by looking for the staircase-shaped line that separates metals from nonmetals. You have also learned about the properties and uses of the six common metalloids (boron, silicon, germanium, arsenic, antimony and tellurium) and the five less common metalloids (carbon, aluminium, selenium, polonium and astatine).


Implications and applications of metalloids




Metalloids are important elements that have unique characteristics that make them useful for many applications in science, technology, medicine, industry and everyday life. Metalloids are essential for making electronic devices, such as transistors, microchips, solar cells, lasers and LEDs. Metalloids are also useful for making materials that have improved properties, such as strength, hardness, flame retardancy and machinability. Metalloids are also beneficial for making substances that have specific functions, such as pesticides, medicines, fire retardants and neutron sources.


Call to action and further reading




If you are interested in learning more about the metalloids, you can check out these resources:


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  • Metalloid - Wikipedia



  • Metalloid Definition and Examples - ThoughtCo



If you enjoyed this article, please share it with your friends and classmates. You can also leave a comment below and let me know what you think. Thank you for reading and have a great day!


FAQs




  • What is the difference between a metal and a metalloid?



A metal is an element that has a high electrical and thermal conductivity, a metallic luster, a malleable and ductile shape, and tends to lose electrons and form positive ions. A metalloid is an element that has a mixture of properties of metals and nonmetals, such as a moderate electrical and thermal conductivity, a variable luster, a brittle shape, and tends to form both covalent and ionic bonds.


  • What is the difference between a nonmetal and a metalloid?



A nonmetal is an element that has a low electrical and thermal conductivity, a dull luster, a brittle shape, and tends to gain electrons and form negative ions. A metalloid is an element that has a mixture of properties of metals and nonmetals, such as a moderate electrical and thermal conductivity, a variable luster, a brittle shape, and tends to form both covalent and ionic bonds.


  • How many metalloids are there in the periodic table?



There is no definitive answer to this question, as different sources may classify elements differently based on their criteria. However, the most commonly accepted number of metalloids is 11: boron, silicon, germanium, arsenic, antimony, tellurium, carbon, aluminium, selenium, polonium and astatine.


  • Which metalloid is the most abundant in the Earth's crust?



The most abundant metalloid in the Earth's crust is silicon, which accounts for about 28% of the mass of the crust. Silicon is also the second most abundant element in the crust after oxygen.


  • Which metalloid is the most toxic to humans?



The most toxic metalloid to humans is polonium, which is a highly radioactive element that can cause acute radiation poisoning and cancer. Polonium has no biological role in humans and can damage DNA and cells. Polonium can be ingested through food or water contamination or inhaled through air pollution or cigarette smoke.


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